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论传播与人的反思性

收录:2006-6-3  作者:吴予敏  来源:网络搜集  点击:4293
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论文提要

本文从当代反思社会学与传播理论研究的结合角度,论述了反思性的社会实践与信息传播的关系,特别指出在现代性境况中这一关系所具有的尖锐的根本的性质。本文评述了受反思社会学影响的传播循环理论,重点论述了马克思恩格斯关于交往形式的唯物史观以及关于大众传播与人民自我意识的观点,分析了从马克思主义创立以来各种基于批判立场的理论学派对于传播和人的反思性问题的关切和解释,以及当代传播境况的新特点。本文认为人的活动是在实践行动结构、认知结构和传播(交流、交往)结构中展开的。传播结构具有反身的和外拓的两种存在方式。其反身存在方式将传播导向内在交流活动,形成同主体的认知结构的张力运动,形成反思性循环;外拓存在方式寻求主体际,与其他主体建构交往共同体。人的传播结构受制于人的环境,特别是同客观化的媒介结构形成了近似于同构的关系。实践、认知、传播三个结构互为影响作用、互为渗透转化,呈现为不断的循环。驱动这些结构发生循环的是主体的意向性、反思性和能动性。传播技术的进步并非必然带来传播体制和传播秩序的合理化,也并非必然带来人的反思性的提升。对于健全的社会发展和人类解放的目标来说,利用传播技术的成果,捍卫并提升人的反思性的实践自觉,应当是当代传播理论的进步的主张。

关键词:传播理论 反思性 现代性 交往形式

abstract

from the perspective of combining the reflexive sociology and the communication theories, the present paper expounds the relationship between social practice of reflexivity and information communication, and points out particularly the sharp and fundamental nature of this relationship in the context of modernity. the paper reviews the recursive communication theory in the influenced by the reflexive sociology and dwells on emphatically carl marx’s and friedrich engels’ historical materialism on “verkehsform” and their views on mass communication and people’s self-consciousness, analyses the concern and explanation on communication and human reflexivity of all the theoretical schools on the basis of various critical standpoints existing after the establishment of marxism as well as the new distinguishing features of the communication contexts. this paper holds that human activities have been conducted in the structure of practical actions, structure of cognition and structure of communication (interchanging/contacts). the structure of communication has such two forms of existence as of reflexives and outward-expansion. the form of reflexive existence has the communication oriented towards intrapersonal communication so as to form a tension structure of cognitive structure of the same subject and also forms a circulation cycle of reflexivity. the form of outward expansion seeks intersubjectivity so as to establish a community of contacts. people’s structure of communication is subject to their environments and particularly forms a relationship akin to a synthesis together with the objective structure of media. the three structures of practice, cognition and communication influence and infiltrate each other and react to and turn to each other so that an unbroken cycle is formed. what enable such structures to result in a cycle of circulation are the subject’s intention, reflexivity and activity. the progress of communication technology does not necessarily bring forth the rationalization of the communication institution and communication sequence. nor does it bring forward the enhancement of human reflexivity. in terms of the goals of sound social development and human emancipation, the utilization of the communication technology’s achievements, the defense and enhancement of the practice consciousness of human reflexivity are to be a progressive proposition of the contemporary communication theories.

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